Brazil is located between 34° and 79° west longitude, 5° north and 33° south latitude. Washed by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The length of the coastline is 7491 km. The shores in the north are low-lying and finely dissected, the largest bay is the mouth of the Amazon River; in the northeast – aligned with sea terraces, the Gulf of Toduz-us-Santos with coral reefs; in the east – rocky with numerous bays: Guanabara (Rio de Janeiro); in the southeast, Paranagua Bay, low-lying, lagoonal with Lake Laguna Patus. In the northeast of Brazil is the Fernando de Noronha archipelago.
Brazil is bordered to the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, to the northwest by Colombia, to the west by Bolivia and Peru, to the southwest by Paraguay and Argentina, and to the south by Uruguay.
The relief has significant differences between the northern flat part, occupied by the Amazon River basin, and the southern elevated part, represented by the Brazilian Plateau. To the west is the Pantanal, a marshy valley of the upper reaches of the Paraguay River. Along the northern border of Brazil are the spurs of the Guiana Highlands: Serra Akari (up to 600 m), Serra Parima (up to 1500 m). On the border with Venezuela, Brazil’s highest peak is Neblin Peak (3400 m). The height of the Brazilian Plateau is from 200 to 900 m. In the east and southeast of the plateau, the Serra Geral, Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira mountain ranges rise, their height is up to 1200 m, Bandera Peak is 2890 m. In the center and in the north – table plateaus – chapads.
Brazil has a unique combination of diverse metal ores. In terms of reserves of iron, beryllium, niobium ores, Brazil ranks first in the world. Iron ores are concentrated in the states of Minas Gerais (high-quality itabirites), Para (Serra dos Carajas), Mato Grosso (Morro do Urucum). Manganese ores – in the states of Amapa (Serra do Na Viu), Mato Grosso (Morro do Urucum). Bauxite – in the Trombetas river basin in the state of Para, the Pocos de Caldas plateau in the state of Minas Gerais. Rich tin deposits in the state of Rondoña. In the northeast of Brazil, on the Borborema Plateau, there are complex pegmatite ores containing rare metals: beryllium, tungsten, zirconium, lithium, etc. Gold throughout the territory, but mainly in the states of Goias, Minas Gerais, etc. There are platinum, uranium, monazite sands. Brazil is experiencing a shortage of fuel resources. Oil reserves are confined to the Atlantic marginal basin: the states of Bahia (Reconcavo), Sergipe (Karmopolis), Rio de Janeiro (Campus). In the south of Brazil there are oil shale, the main coal deposits are in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina.
According to BRIDGAT, Brazil is located in the equatorial, tropical and subtropical zones. In the west of the Amazon – equatorial humid (2000-3000 mm per year, the average monthly temperature is above + 25 ° C), in the east – subequatorial with a dry period of up to 3-4 months, in the center of the Brazilian Plateau and in the Pantanal – subequatorial humid (1400- 2000 mm per year). In the northeast, the amount of precipitation decreases to 500 mm or less per year, and rainfall is extremely irregular. On the eastern outskirts, the climate is tropical, trade winds, hot and humid, with a short dry season and pronounced altitudinal zonality in the mountains. South of 24° south latitude – subtropical.
The river network is very dense. The largest rivers: Amazon (its basin occupies 1/3 of the territory of Brazil). The Amazon, with its western tributaries and the lower reaches of its eastern tributaries, is full of water throughout the year and navigable; Parana with tributaries; Paraguay; Uruguay. In the northeast of Brazil – the main river of Sao Francisco, Parnaiba. The rivers of the Brazilian Plateau abound in rapids and waterfalls (Iguazu, Seti Quedas on the Parana River, Paulo Afonso on the Sao Francisco River).
Most of the territory is occupied by various types of red ferralitic soils: red-yellow in the Amazon, red-brown and red-brown in the dry northeast of Brazil, and dark red and humus on the southern elevated plateaus. South of 24° South latitude, reddish-black soils.
In the north of Brazil there are dense, humid equatorial evergreen forests – hylaea with valuable tree species (over 4000 species). The central part of the Brazilian Plateau is savannah, shrubs and stunted trees (serradus campus), along the rivers are gallery forests (various types of palm trees, including carnauba). In the northeast – semi-desert woodlands (caatinga) of xerophytic trees and shrubs, in the south of Brazil – deciduous and mixed forests of coniferous pine (Brazilian araucaria). South of 24° south latitude is the grassy campus limpus.
Western Amazonia is rich in endemics. Many of them are adapted to life on trees: monkeys (capuchins, saimiri, howler monkeys), sloths, anteaters, tree porcupines, opossums. Among the land animals are armadillo, skunk, wild pigs (bakers), tapir, a wide variety of reptiles (snakes, water boa, anaconda, lizard). A wide variety of fish (arapaima, piranha), birds (parrots, hummingbirds, toucans), insects (butterflies, beetles and ants). In the eastern Amazon – animals of open spaces – deer mazama, small armadillos; Lots of rodents and termites. In the Amazon River – manatees and the Amazonian dolphin (up to 2000 species of fish, 1/3 of the freshwater fauna of the globe). The Brazilian Plateau is characterized by: anteaters, armadillos, maned wolf, various rodents, rhea ostrich and many other birds, reptiles and insects.